This Mesozoic Month: April 2017

Not the roller coaster that March was, but April's been another nifty month in matters paleontological, and that's no foolin'!

In the News

Edmontosaurus lovers, heads up. The cranium of E. regalis is the subject of a new paper in PLoS One. Brian Switek has been writing a cool series called "The Dead Zoo" for Omni, and he profiled the mighty duckbill, taking into account all of this new information we've been getting about it over the last decade.

A new paper describes the earliest, basalmost phytosaur of all: Diandongosuchus fuyuaensis.

There's a wee lil' new microraptorine on the block, Zhongjianosaurus. Read more at Theropoda and Letters from Gondwana.

If early, early archosaurs are your thing - and why wouldn't they be, after all - you're in luck. The description of Teleocrater rhadinus in Nature fills in some gaps down at the base of the tree. Hear Liz Martin-Silverstone talk about it on Palaeocast.

Around the Dinoblogosphere

Sarah Gibson did a two-part interview with Brian Engh at the PLOS Paleo Community blog. Check out part one and part two.

I wasn't able to attend Paleofest as I'd hoped, but David Prus is here with a write-up of his visit to the annual prehistoric bonanza in Rockford, IL.

At Earth Archives, Vasika Udurawane has begun a series on the evolution of plants. Start here.

Matt Martyniuk is back with another "You're Doing it Wrong" post. This time he covers the bill of Pteranodon.

At Pseudoplocephalus, Victoria pays a visit to a biomechanics exhibit at the Ontario Science Centre.

Zach writes about the snouty thallatosaurs at Waxing Paleontological. "The more I read about the Triassic," he writes, "the weirder it gets."

As Saurian gets closer to its pre-release, the team have released a new devlog teasing the field guide book.

Herman's back with a book review attack, upping one that rocks, dissing one that lacks. Hit it!

At Tyrannosauroidea Central, Thomas Carr writed about the implications of the recent publication of Daspletosaurus horneri: ontogeny and the anagenesis hypothesis.

Check out the sweet paleo-themed dinner plate Paul Pursglove found.

The LITC AV Club

The Royal Tyrrell Museum's speaker series continues, with a presentation on the halisaurine mosasaurs by Dr. Takuya Konishi of the University of Cincinnati.

Brian Engh revisits Aquilops in his newest paleoart video.

Crowdfunding Spotlight

Following up her portrait series on the diversity of the paleontology community, Thea Boodhoo is working on organizing a workshop on diversity at this August's SVP meeting in Calgary. They need funds to make the workshop a great experience for all attendees. Head to GoFundMe to help out.

After her successful set of prehistoric enamel pins funded a couple months ago, Jessy Smith is back with a set of Mesozic megafauna. Pledge at Kickstarter.

A Moment of Paleoart Zen

I love this Rodrigo Vega illustration of a gnarly-looking Yacarerani boliviensis, a notosuchian from the Late Cretaceous.

Yacarerani boliviensis © Rodrigo Vega, used here with the artist's permission.

Trying to Recreate Beauty as Original as Ladurée Makeup

*Post originally written by Olivia J on The Unknown Beauty Blog.*

Source: LaDurée

Sometimes makeup becomes more than just the colored pigments, it becomes this image of pure sophistication and beauty.  Take, for example, LaDuree Rose Petal Face Color.  The beauty of the packaging and the delicate rose petals just redefine makeup.  Makeup is to decorate not only oneself but to decorate your vanity.
I beg you, click to read more »

Vintage Dinosaur Art: Private Lives of Animals: Prehistoric Animals - Part 3

Since we've already looked at everything that's more important, let us now turn to the Cenozoic mammals of the wonderful Private Lives of Animals book on extinct beasties. And where better to begin than with a ground sloth with hair so wonderfully painted, you'll want to reach through the screen and run your fingers through it? (Just watch out for fleas and dandruff.)

As you will already be well aware, it's obligatory to restore Megatherium standing upright against a tree, with its hands gripping the branches; even the model in Crystal Palace Park is posed like this. Still, it makes sense to give an impression of the animal's massive size, and it is considered a likely feeding habit, as far as I'm aware. Although it's a very straightforward illustration of the animal in its environment (with a minimal background to make room for the text), this might just be one of my favourite illustrations in the book for reasons I can't quite put my finger on. It's probably that aforementioned beautifully textured fur, or the curling, gnarly, realistic quality of the tree. It looks like it could've been drawn from life, all the more because it isn't photo-realistic. If it wasn't painted by Burian, it's certainly worthy of him.

Following the format of the rest of the book, Megatherium's 'profile' is followed by a page of illustrations depicting its behaviour, contemporaries and relatives, living and extinct. Here begins the trend of illustrations depicting a group of humans throwing things at some unfortunate soon-to-be-extinct animal. Another illustration depicts two Megatherium under attack from a pack of 'wild dogs', and having watched documentary footage of wolves taking on buffalo, I really don't fancy the dogs' chances too much (no matter what the text says).

A sandy-coloured Smilodon might seem eye-rollingly inevitable in a book like this, but at least the illustrator's done a fantastic job of it - this would make a wonderful book cover or poster. As well as obviously being very exciting, the pose helps emphasise the animal's hugely powerful and muscular forelimbs. The faces (especially of the individual in the background) are well-observed and very convincing, although they may be a little too like living big cats in areas like the placement of the eyes. The text is, of course, weird. Vampire Smilodon!

You may have been hoping to see some depictions of speculative Smilodon social behaviour - perhaps a mother with a litter of cubs, or a handful of animals chillin' in the feline fashion. Well get out of here, hippy! Private Lives is all about the bloody violence - it's what the kids want. Note that this page features one of the few illustrations of hominids in which they are on the losing side (in this case, thanks to Machairodus rather than Smilodon). The depiction of the tussle with the mega-elk is particularly awesome.

What other huge mammalian predator generally springs to mind when one imagines a pop culture 'Ice Age' setting? Giant cave bears, of course. This is a perfectly serviceable illustration (and look! Babies!), but does little to hint at the horror that will unfold on the following page.

Neanderthals versus Bears: the Fire and the Fury. Once again, we have a scene of hominds ganging up to hit some poor furry thing with sticks, but in this case, the furry thing ain't gonna take it lying down. As bats scatter everywhere in panic, a gigantic bear prepares to do its bit to ensure that only one Homo species will make it into the Holocene*. Wonderful, savage, highly evocative and action-packed stuff - gotta love it.

Carrying on down the 'Ice Age' checklist, we come to The Mammoth. Presumably the woolly mammoth, Mammuthus primigenius. A fine enough painting, but there's something a little strange about it - I think it might be the trunk (and a perspective issue).

Two of the additional mammoth illustrations aren't terribly exciting, with the animals depicted in a rather indifferent fashion, hanging out in the far distance. This all changes, of course, when there's terrible violence involved. This painterly evocation of the BRUTALITY OF MAN looks like something out of an unusually violent Ladybird book, and I mean that in the best possible way. Like the bears v Neanderthals scene, it's very busy and full of energy. I believe the mammoth is meant to have fallen into a trap, but it almost looks like it's struggling amid a raging tempest.

And now...oh boy. It's time for the evolution of MAN. Although at least we're treated to one of the few illustrations that is definitely by Burian (confirmed by the signature); as usual, his depiction of Homo erectus is quite distressingly lifelike. It's not quite up to the quality of the work in Life before Man, but this illustration of (presumably) 'Java Man' is suitably uncanny in its not-quite-human qualities - like looking into the eyes of a gorilla or orang-utan in the zoo, only worse.

Here the always florid text (translated from the original Italian, although apparently other translations are similar in tone) veers into alarmingly racist territory. In fact, it implies that the different 'races' of modern humans are effectively different species, or at least subspecies, which makes about as much sense as voting Conservative on the basis of Theresa May's promises. (There you go, that's my "irrelevant, intrusive political mithering" taken care of for this post.)

And's the 'ascent of man'. Happily, we are here given a glimpse into the 'private lives' of Neanderthals, beyond tormenting bears with torches; a charming illustration depicts a family group, while the text mentions their advanced culture and tool-making skills. Of course, it was the "descendants of Cro-Magnon man", rather than the Neanderthals, who went on to become "masters of the Earth" (nothing like a bit of 1970s hubris!). The text implies that the illustration at the bottom left depicts Cro-Magnons, but I rather fancy the original intent was to show a stage in the progress of their descendants - given that horses weren't domesticated until many thousands of years later.

As for the astronaut - bless.

*I'm aware that this depends on your view of the taxonomy. It's a joke, damn it.

8 Reasons Why Jay Manuel Powder to Cream Foundation Missed the Beauty Mark

*Post originally written by Olivia J on The Unknown Beauty Blog. If you see this post elsewhere, it has been plagiarized.*

I have nothing against Jay Manuel.  In fact, he looks to be a fun and loving guy with a great heart, and I would hang around with him all day if I ever had the chance. He is a truly gifted and talented makeup artist who knows how to bring out true beauty in anyone.  I am sure he has touched many faces from famous to everyday people with various skin tones.  With this in mind, I don’t understand why his Powder to Cream Foundation would turn out to be such a disappointment times eight!

I beg you, click to read more »

Utahraptor competition: the winner!

After consulting with the Chasmo-team, and taking into account the feedback from our readers (i.e. that one comment from Emily Willoughby - thanks, Emily!), I'm happy to present the winner of our Utahraptor competition: Castles Made of Sand by Rhunevild aka Madison H!

Yes, that's a Jimi Hendrix reference (as Madison's deviantArt page make clear), but there's so much more to the piece than that; it's artistically accomplished, the dinosaurs are lightly stylised but still essentially anatomically correct, and it's a single, text-free image that says everything through character and expression. In other words, it fulfils the brief very nicely. Madison also promoted the Utahraptor Project over on deviantArt. Nice work, Madison! Please leave a comment below with an e-mail address or somesuch and I'll be in touch. (By the way, it's very much a healthy dose of wry humour, I'll have you know.)

Thanks again to everyone who entered a piece - it's always a delight to see what our wonderful, talented readership can produce.

London Zoo Part V: Reptile House

The last set of my photos from London Zoo (for the time being) come from its reptile house. Here is a king cobra, one of the largest venomous snakes.

A yellow-headed water monitor.

The Annam leaf turtle exhibit had a very interesting design, a stark presentation of some of the threats that this species is facing.

An Utila spiny-tailed iguana, another reptile critically endangered by hunting.

A collared tree lizard.

A Rio Fuerte beaded lizard, formerly considered a subspecies of the Mexican beaded lizard.

A Fiji banded iguana, a species with a lovely color palette.

Some Feae's flying frogs. I imagine they don't get to showcase the "flying" part much in this exhibit.

"Jeff Corwin can hear it, and so can Sir David Attenborough..."

A Philippine crocodile.

A puff adder (the original, not just any species of Bitis).

A Jamaican boa.

A gidgee skink, a sociable Australian lizard, as indicated by the accompanying sigaage.

The White's tree frog exhibit is decorated to reflect one of the habitats wild specimens are commonly found in.

A Sardinian brook salamander.

A black mamba, widely considered to be the fastest snake in the world.

The Must-Have Colors from Suva Beauty Hydra Cream Bases

*Post originally written by Olivia J on The Unknown Beauty Blog. If you read this post elsewhere, it has been stolen.*

Suva Beauty has one of the best eyeshadow bases. After the initial purchase of the Caramel Hydra Base, I knew I had to get some more colors. I didn't buy any of the wild colors but that doesn't mean I didn't want them. 

I beg you, click to read more »

Why I Believe: Evidence Fifty-Three: “Zingers” in the Book of Mormon, Part 8: "The Name Paanchi.”

101 Reasons Why I Believe Joseph Smith Was a Prophet

Evidence Fifty-Three:
     “Zingers” in the Book of Mormon, Part 8: 
“The Name Paanchi.”© 

In previous blogs I have mentioned what I call “zingers” in the Book of Mormon–little things that on closer inspection often turn out to be very important as evidence for the truthfulness of the book and of the prophetic calling of Joseph Smith. Today’s “zinger” is a very small thing indeed–the name of one of the personalities in the Book of Mormon–Paanchi to be precise. (See Hel. 1:3.) According to Hugh Nibley, it is an Egyptian name and its presence in the Book of Mormon is quite remarkable. As a bonus, Nibley also remarks about the ancient order of battle that is also reflected in the Book of Mormon. Here is his statement.
Another characteristic of the Book of Mormon is the ritual nature of war. In Alma 44:5, we have what can be called a “rule of battle for the sons of light.” War is highly ritualized in the Book of Mormon. It is one thing that used to excite derision from Book of Mormon critics.  What could be more silly, they used to ask, than a general who would give away his plan of battle to the enemy, or allow him to choose the time and the terrain? Yet this is very particular and strictly in order. In a study by Gardiner, he himself refers to “Piankhi’s Instructions to His Army.” That is a peculiar name, a pure Egyptian name, and one odd enough that no one could have possibly invented it in the Book of Mormon. Piankhi was a general before the time of Lehi, was very famous, became king of Egypt, and the name became quite popular afterwards. Piankhi-meri-amen means “Amen is my life.” But of course the name occurs in the Book of Mormon (Helaman 1:3). It was this name, I strongly suspect, that first put Professor Albright on the track of the Book of Mormon. He recognized that it couldn’t possibly have been faked or forged. What could be more silly? Here’s Piankhi, and there are the instructions, “Piankhi commands his generals to give the enemy choice of time and place for fight.” This is the way it was usually done, arranging battles ahead of time, just as the Book of Mormon people use to.(1)
Of course these flecks of evidence do not prove the Book of Mormon is true.  Nothing does.  But they are morsels suggesting the book comes from ancient times, that it’s background is the ancient Near East, just as Joseph Smith said.
Thank God for Joseph Smith!  

Let’s think together again, soon.


1. Hugh Nibley, “Rediscovery of the Apocrypha and the Book of Mormon,” in Temple and Cosmos, Beyond This Ignorant Present, The Collected Works of Hugh Nibley 12, (Salt Lake City and Provo,UT: Deseret Book and FARMS, 1992), p. 255.

Coconut Oil: for Eyelashes

The benefits of using coconut oil on the eyelashes.

1. Nowadays it is very popular in beauty to have long and thick eyelashes, and there are many mascara products and fake eyelashes that can be used. The problem with these it that they can cause your natural lashes to thin out and be less noticeable.

2. The eyelashes are natural protectors for the eyes, by blocking dust and allergens from getting into the eyes. Having thicker eyelashes helps this process.

3. Coconut oil has been used as a natural remedy for generations for all kinds of different health issues. It can be used to help the eyelashes grow.

For this remedy you will need

Extra Virgin Coconut Oil 
Cotton Buds (Q-Tips)

Method: Simply use your cotton swab and gently apply the coconut oil around the eyelashes, between the hairs, making sure to coat the roots as much as possible. 

Do this every single day for 30 days and you will notice how wonderfully healthy and thick your eyelashes become.
You can apply this to your eyebrows also for a similar effect.

Coconut oil hardens when it is cold, so you may need to warm it slightly to make it into a thick liquid. 

Do not worry if you accidentally drip coconut oil in your eyes. This may make them blurry for 10 minutes but this will not cause any damage. In fact coconut oil is often used in natural remedies to treat eye infections such as conjunctivitis.

4. The natural compounds in the coconut oil help new hair follicles to grow thicker, stronger and healthier.

5. The nutrients within also help to strengthen the existing eyelashes, making them less likely to break or fall out.

6. The coconut oil is also excellent for the skin and can be used to destroy pimples, skin infections and dry skin. 

7. It also has a wonderful smell, which reminds me of summer holidays.
8. We recommend using less mascara or fake eyelashes during this natural treatment, just to give your eyelashes a chance to grow.

9. To learn more about natural remedies and healthy foods please see our other videos. 

Thank you very much for listening, a like is always appreciated and remember to subscribe for more healthy videos. I wish you great health, wealth and happiness.

Quick Look at Suva Beauty Eyeshadows

*Post originally written by Olivia J on The Unknown Beauty Blog. If you see this post elsewhere, it has been stolen.*

Suva Beauty is a brand I love.  Even though their products are mostly aimed towards the youthful color-experimenting crowd; the line is wise-owl friendly thanks to the formulation of their products.  With this in mind, I ended up purchasing a few more eyeshadows to satisfy not only the neutral side of me, but the colorful side.

I beg you, click to read more »

Holy Cow

Holy Cow….How Lufthansa saved my day

This incident happened in June 2007 when I was returning back from a business trip to the US. I was travelling by Lufthansa Airlines from Washington (Dulles Airport) to Bangalore via Frankfurt.

I normally do a web check-in atleast 24 hours before the flight and I also pre-book my meal especially when I travel to European countries or to United States. Though I am a non- vegetarian, by food habit, I strictly avoid beef as most devout Hindus do and this is the reason why I pre-book the “HNML - Hindu Non-Vegetarian” meal, which consists only of white meat (Fish or Poultry). I also ensure to check the HNML sticker on the food packet before I start my meal.

While boarding the aircraft, I was offered a better seat in the same coach, which had better leg room. I could not refuse the offer and changed my seat. I was happy, that I could spend the next 8 hours without having to strain my legs and knees.  I had an American couple for company, who were travelling to some German city via Frankfurt.

Everything was smooth until it was time for lunch to be served. I woke up from deep sleep and without checking the sticker or label on the food packet; I quickly opened the same and began to eat. While eating the meat portion, I felt something was not right because the meat was not looking white. Have I eaten red meat? Have I eaten beef? I immediately looked for the label on the food packet and to my surprise the HNML sticker was missing. I was now sure that it must have been beef and raised an alarm. The American couple was surprised at my behavior and was inquisitive to know from me, as to why Hindus generally do not eat beef and what prevented us from eating cows. I promised to give them the answer but not before checking the type of meat offered to me for lunch.

I pressed the Flight Attendant call button above my seat and decided not to have the next morsel until I got a confirmation on the meat type. Incidentally a lady wearing a scarf on her head, who was seated behind me, also stopped eating. She was apparently a Muslim lady and feared if the meat served to her was pork. She too wanted to get a confirmation from the flight attendant. Since lunch was being served, most of the flight attendants were extremely busy. One of them saw the glowing calling light above me and came rushing to me. How can I help you Sir, she said. I requested the flight attendant to check from the pantry, the type of Meal that was served to me since I doubted it was beef. She felt probably due to the last minute change in my seat, the meal that was meant for me must have got misplaced somewhere. However she promised to get my doubt confirmed from her senior. At the same time, the lady seated behind me also put forth a similar request to the flight attendant.

Both waited patiently for about 10 minutes. The American couple could not hide their smile seeing our plight. Suddenly the senior flight attendant appeared before me and exclaimed “ I have some good news for you Sir”. There was a big relief on my face but the lady behind me still had a doubt.
“It is turkey meat Sir and turkey meat is quite similar to chicken”. Technically she was right since turkey meat is classified as white meat thought it’s a different matter that I do not relish turkey meat. Now, there was a big smile on the face of the lady with the scarf. The American couple could not control their laughter and asked me the same question again.

Now somewhat relieved that I did not eat beef, I explained to them about the cow being a very holy animal to Hindus; a cow is believed to carry 33 types of Gods in its body; a cow is given the status of a “Mother” etc. The discussion went on for few hours and it was time to land at Frankfurt.

Both the flight attendant and her senior folded their hands to say “Namaste” to me while I was exiting the aircraft. I just did not have enough words to thank both of them. It is the belief and faith more than anything else and the team at Lufthansa had indeed saved my day.

Interestingly the airline’s name has a Sanskrit word in it called “Hansa”, which means a crane. The crane is also the logo of the airline.  “There must be a strong connection with Indian culture” and with this thought I disembarked at Frankfurt airport, running to catch my connecting flight to Bangalore.

London Zoo Part IV: B.U.G.S.

I get the impression that the B.U.G.S. (Biodiversity Underpinning Global Survival) building is one of the most highly acclaimed exhibits at the London Zoo, and it's not difficult to see why. Many of its displays use quite novel methods to showcase its resident animals, most of which (as indicated by the building's acronym) are invertebrates.

The photo below shows one of these novel exhibits, their leaf-cutter ant display. The ants can march between several tanks, including one from which they can harvest leaves and another which houses their nest. The paths they use to get from tank to tank are exposed out in the open, providing no physical barrier between the ants and visitors.

A pile of leaves harvested by the ants.

A couple of giant house spiders living in a mock-up bathroom.

A fen raft spider, a large wetland spider that hunts on the water surface.

There is even a spider walkthrough exhibit. Shown here is the corner of the walkthrough where social spiders reside.

Some chocolate millipedes. (They are not actually made of chocolate.)

Some weaver ants with their woven nest, which is made out of leaves and larval silk.

Some shiny jewel wasps, a parasitic wasp species that lay their eggs on cockroaches.

Some sunburst diving beetles.

Some critically endangered giant magnolia snails.

Some African giant mosquitoes, one of the few mosquito species in which the females do not need to drink blood to reproduce. The larvae prey on the larvae of other mosquitoes. Accordingly, they are sometimes used as a means of biological pest control.

A medicinal leech.

7 Ways to Mix Suva Beauty Hydra Liners

*Post originally written by Olivia J on The Unknown Beauty Blog. If you read this post elsewhere, it has been stolen.*
*PR samples are noted.  The rest bought by me.*

When it comes to Suva Beauty, I know I can experiment with their products.  There is really no restriction since they are made to accommodate outside-the-box thinking. You may be wondering how can one really experiment with water-activated eyeliner.  Yeah, I wondered too which is why I mixed them with different products.  Here are seven lucky ways you can mix these fun Hydra Liners!
I beg you, click to read more »

Utahraptor competition: the contenders

Just over a month ago, I launched our latest art competition in the name of drawing attention to the Utahraptor Project. The aim was to humorously illustrate how all those dinosaurs ended up caught in quicksand together - disregarding the scientific hypothesis that it was a predator trap, because pish, scientists, what do they know? Below, I'll lay out everything we've received, and although our decision is final, feel free to leave a comment in aid of your preferred winner.

We did get a couple of entries that illustrated Utahraptor (or, in one case, seemingly a JP raptor), but otherwise completely ignored the brief. So they're disregarded here. Sorry, guys. But everyone else is here...starting with Christian A Juul.

Christian's entry features a certain politician/reality TV star/real estate magnate/serial bankrupt/charlatan attempting to persuade a Utahraptor that it's absolutely worth diving in to deadly quicksand in pursuit of an easy meal. Political commentary? On LITC? Never let it be said. The Utahraptor is decked out in suitably patriotic red, white, and blue, which I rather like, even if it reminds me of the mascot from the 1998 World Cup (held in France). A strong first entry.

Next, we have a wee comic/film parody from Szymon Górnicki; if you're not getting it, check out this poster. Here, three 'helpless ornithopods' have turned the tables and dispatched a gaggle of Utahraptor over a cliff edge where they will, presumably, meet a very sticky end. Beautifully drawn and it manages to be funny while remaining entirely naturalistic - even realistic. Except the text.

Robin Liesens' entry alludes to a certain paper published recently - you might have heard of it - that proposed a radical shakeup of the dinosaur family tree. SAND = Sauropods Are Not Dinosaurs, geddit? There are a number of wonderful touches here, including the iguanodont holding its glass with its pinky, the armband-wearing juvenile Utahraptor, and the snorkelling individual in the centre, who is surely dead.

Connor Ross submitted a wee comic strip that references Bob Bakker's novel Raptor Red. I haven't read it, but understand there is a chapter (that's been illustrated by Luis Rey) involving Utahraptor sliding down snowy slopes for the sheer joy of it. Here, they are at significant risk of sludgy doom, but one of them is far too bird-brained to realise.

Julio Lacerda submitted a meme. SHAME. Amusing image, though.

Meanwhile, Yul Altolaguirre fully embraced the spirit of silliness that gave us Ost's surfing T. rex last time. Yes, they're fighting a gigantic evil mud monster, and it doesn't half make me chuckle. As a bonus, Yul's girlfriend also submitted a piece featuring gracefully diving Utahraptor, blissfully unaware of their grisly fate (below).

Rhunevild, aka Madbat, aka Madison H, depicted what appears to be a quite delightful sandcastle-making contest going horribly awry. You may wish to note that Madison has paid a fair bit of attention to the animals' heads - remember, anatomical accuracy wasn't a requirement, but is to be commended. Mainly because the serious reconstruction/silly scenario contrast is inherently funny. Notice also the iguanodont in the background, almost completely submerged. Oh dear.

And finally, in at the eleventh hour, here's Chris DiPiazza's painterly piece. Having to climb a garden fence to retrieve a ball might be bad enough, but our poor green friend here has to brave a gloopy deathtrap.

That's your lot! Which one's your favourite? Let us know! In addition to a couple of randomly selected cruddy dinosaur books pulled from my collection, the winner will also receive this very lovely chicken card signed and illustrated by Katrina van Grouw, Darren Naish, Mark Witton, John Conway and our own Natee. And me. Best of luck!